Acknowledgments
xi
Introduction
xiii
Symbols and formats used
xvii
Part I: Concepts and Practices
1
1 Music and mixing
3
Music - an extremely short introduction
3
The perfect mix
7
2 Some axioms and other gems
12
Louder perceived better
12
Percussives weigh less
14
Importance
15
Natural vs. artificial
16
3 Learning to mix
18
What makes a great mixing engineer?
18
Methods of learning
22
Mixing analysis
24
Reference tracks
25
4 The process of mixing
28
Mixing and the production chain
28
The mix as a composite
32
Where to start?
33
Deadlocks
39
Milestones
40
Finalizing and stabilizing the mix
41
5 Related Issues
44
How long does it take?
44
Breaks
45
Using solos
45
Mono listening
46
Bouncing
48
Housekeeping
53
Mix edits
53
Mastering
55
6 Mixing domains and objectives
58
Mixing objectives
58
Frequency domain
60
Level domain
64
stereo domain
67
depth
71
Part II: Tools
75
7 Monitoring
77
How did we get here?
77
Choosing monitors
81
The room factor
84
Positioning monitors
88
8 Meters
93
Amplitude vs. level
93
Mechanical and bar meters
94
Peak meters
95
Average meters
95
Phase meters
98
9 Mixing consoles
99
Buses
100
Processors vs. effects
100
Basic signal flow
102
Groups
117
In-line consoles
124
The monitor section
128
Solos
131
Correct gain structure
135
The digital console
137
10 Software mixers
140
Tracks and Mixer Strips
141
Routing
146
The internal architecture
149
11 Phase
163
What is phase?
163
Problems
165
Tricks
168
12 Faders
177
Types
177
Scales
179
Working with faders
181
13 Panning
184
How stereo works?
184
Pan controls
186
Types of tracks
194
Panning techniques
198
Beyond pan pots
203
14 Equalizers
205
Applications
206
The frequency spectrum
209
Types and controls
214
In practice
232
Equalizing various instruments
249
15 Introduction to dynamic range processors
262
Dynamic range
262
Dynamics
264
Dynamic range processors in a nutshell
265
16 Compressors
270
The course of history
271
The sound of compressors
273
Principle of operation and core controls
274
Additional controls
287
Controls in practice
295
Applications
312
Tricks
322
More on compressors
327
17 Limiters
335
18 Gates
338
Controls
339
Applications
351
In practice
355
Tricks
358
19 Expanders
365
Controls
366
In practice
368
Upward expanders
371
20 Duckers
374
Operation and controls
374
Applications
377
21 Delays
380
Delay basics
380
Types
384
In practice
389
Applications
393
22 Other modulation tools
397
Vibrato
397
ADT
398
Chorus
399
Flanging
401
Phasing
402
Tremolo
404
23 Reverbs
405
What is reverb?
405
Applications
405
Types
410
Reverb programs
418
Reverb properties and parameters
421
Reverbs and stereo
434
Other reverb types
437
Reverbs in practice
443
24 Distortion
451
Background
451
Distortion basics
451
Ways to generate distortion
454
Amp simulators
457
25 Drum triggering
460
Methods of drum triggering
461
26 Other tools
465
MS
465
Pitch shifters and harmonizers
470
Exciters and enhancers
471
Transient designers
473
27 Automation
475
Automation engines
476
The automation process
476
Automation alternatives
479
Control surfaces
480
Part III: Sample Mixes
483
28 Hero (Rock)
485
Drums
486
Bass
491
Rhythm guitar
492
Distorted guitars
493
Lead guitar
495
Vocals
495
29 It's temps Pt. II (Hip Hop/Urban/Grime)
499
Beat
499
Bass
502
Other tracks
503
Vocals
507
30 Donna Pomini (Techno)
513
Ambiance reverb
513
Beat
514
Sound FX
519
Bass
520
Vocal
521
Other elements
521
31 The Hustle (DnB)
526
The Ambiance reverb
527
Drums
527
Motif elements
532
Pads
535
Horns and brass
536
Risers
537
Strings
539
Appendix A: Note to frequencies chart
540
Appendix B: Delay time chart
541
Index
551
cron